SS2: Impact of volcanic activity crises in places of tourist interest: Stromboli, Vulcano, White Island, Cumbre Vieja and other case studies


Elisabetta Del Bello

Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Italy

Federico Di Traglia

National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics – OGS, Borgo Grotta Gidante 42/C, 34010 Sgonico, Italy

Daniele Andronico

Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Italy

Piergiorgio Scarlato

Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Italy

Luca D'Auria

INVOLCAN – Instituto Volcanológico de Canarias, Spain
ITER – Instituto Tecnológico y de Energías Renovables, Spain


Though there are thousands of volcanoes on the planet, some of the most active and dangerous ones are located in highly populated and touristic places, like volcanic islands. The combination of splendid scenery, outdoor activities in the mountains, and relaxing stays by the sea, attract thousands of tourists.

The volcanic phenomena are highly variable. Some are persistently erupting magma and gas, with impulsive or sustained explosions that can continue uninterrupted for long periods without significant breaks. Sometimes however, this usually mildly-explosive style can shift into a more violent one, leading to destructive, powerful phenomena such as intense tephra and ballistic fallouts, sustained lava fountaining, pyroclastic and lava flows, tsunami and fires, as in the cases of Fuego (Guatemala) in 2018, Kilauea (Hawaii, USA) in 2018, Krakatoa (Indonesia) in 2018 and Stromboli (Italy) in 2019. In other cases the volcanic activity can remain quiescent for years/decades, and then suddenly resume, unexpectedly surprising the inhabitants, as in the most recent case of Cumbre Vieja (La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain) in 2021.

Other volcanoes are characterised by a steady state, long-term hydrothermal activity. However, a sudden phreatic crisis can interrupt that condition, and phreatic explosions, which may or may not be associated with magmatic phases, can generate projectiles ejection and the development of PDCs, as those of Te Maari (Tongariro, New Zealand) in 2012, Ontake (Japan) in 2014, and Whakāri / White demonstrated Island (New Zealand) in 2016. At the time of writing this session, Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy) is showing signals of volcanic unrest, opening the assessment of different eruptive scenarios.

This wide range of phenomena largely affect the safety and the economy of the involved islands, mostly based on the tourism industry. At the same time volcanic activity represents by itself a tourist attraction both on the short and long terms.

In this session, we welcome a wide range of contributions focusing on scientific aspects of the most recent examples of eruptive crisis (like, e.g., eruptive dynamics, volcano modelling, and volcanic hazard) using a variety of direct and remote sensing tools, also including the use of social media as a source of scientific data. In addition, we strongly encourage submissions on the management of impact and risk mitigation of those recent eruptive crises and on the exploitation of the natural resources linked to volcanism.

This session has the sponsorship and support of the IAVCEI Commission on Explosive Volcanism.

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