S1.23: Fissure eruptions: processes and products


Thomas J. Jones

Department of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences, Rice University, USA

Carolyn Parcheta

U.S. Geological Survey, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, HI, USA

Freysteinn Sigmundsson

Nordic Volcanological Center, Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland, Iceland

Nobuo Geshi

Geological Survey of Japan, AIST, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan

Fissure eruptions initiate as curtains of lava fountains often several hundred meters to a few kilometres in length. The eruptive fissure geometries are initially of high aspect ratio, and may involve multiple vents connected at depth, but appearing segmented and separated at the surface. Over the order of hours to weeks, the curtain often focuses to one main point along the fissure. This dynamic evolution makes hazard monitoring and mitigation challenging. A continuous spectrum from explosive (e.g. fountaining) to effusive (e.g. lava flows) behaviour exists, and occasionally a single vent can transition in behaviour or display two variants simultaneously. Furthermore, the spatial and temporal variations in eruptive style produce highly variable deposits (typically including spatter bombs, scoria, lapilli, and pele’s hair). Recent eruptions such as the 2018 eruption of Kilauea’s Lower East Rift Zone have highlighted the extreme variably of these eruptions and the challenges they pose to society. This session welcomes contributions that cover any aspect of fissure eruptions. These topics include, but are not limited to, monitoring techniques, hazardmanagement, magma storage and transport, eruption dynamics, and associated long-term impacts.

Scroll to Top